The founding father and first throne holder of the Palyul tradition is the Vidhyadhara Kunzang Sherab, born in 1636. The current eleventh throne holder is the Third Drubwang Pema Norbu Rinpoche, born in 1932. From Kunzang Sherab to the present, the throne holders of the Palyul tradition and their sangha have maintained the lineage of non-dual Mahamudra (Great Seal) – Dzogchen (Great Perfection) Atiyoga as their principal practice. It includes training in clear light togyal, inner togyal, darkness practice, dream practice, training in the nature of sound and pure realms practice. “Due to the strong emphasis on practice, the Palyul tradition became known as the lineage of practice.” For a full account of the lamas and lineage of the Palyul Tradition of Nyingmapa, see A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees by Ven. Tsering Lama Jampal Zangpo, trans. by Sangye Khandro.